The article on critical thinking postulate’s we’re mostly dummies:
Not true! Yes, we know what it means, and apparently, to such an extent as to undermine the author’s own conclusion.
Critical thinking is not reactionary thinking, which is what most people do, but rather, it requires careful observations from multiple perspectives (angles) asking questions, analyzing problems by looking for cause and effect relationships, comparing and connecting ideas, including tenuous ones which may initially seem to have no sway on the outcome but shouldn’t be discounted except by careful study, then determining solutions. evaluating outcomes.
But hey, sorry for the lack of precision, as that was just off the top of my head…
The Scientific Method, by the way, isn’t Critical Thinking, per se’, but rather a specialized subset which evolved along with statistics to propose and test hypotheses in the acquisition of information and knowledge.
Put another way, critical thinking involves the examination of self and environment, and when properly applied, results in changes of behavior for the better.
Our government is a great real world example. We know for a fact that, to a certain point, lowering taxes leaves more money in the money supply for people to use, invest, spend, better their lives, put into R&D, spruce up their small businesses, pay that Christmas bonus, etc. The net result is an increase in taxes that is greater than the tax cut in the first place. It works because people work harder.when they have more with which to work.
By contrast, communism in the U.S.S.R. took everything then metered back a pittance, literally starving the life out of the economy by removing both incentive AND means. The great experiment that failed made the faulty assumption that after a few generations humans would have changed into what are essentially slaves, a faulty assumption elitists still make today.
The essence of good capitalism would be a hunter or a farmer keeping what they need of their kill or harvest, then trading the rest for other things they need, such as leather goods, bread, fruits and vegetables. They do this because they want to, not because they have to. Freedom with proper discipline results in hard work and an abundance out of which people are free to choose greater destinies than mere subsistence. It works if they work for it, but giving an abundance to those without discipline and who have not worked for it results in hoarding, squandering of both resources and time, and is simply unsustainable.
Communism and socialist invariably result in either totalitarian or at least oppressive regimes because they require irrational beliefs on the part of the masses, ones which invite empire building, power struggles, and abuse. They rely on the false premise that everyone is inherently good, an idea thoroughly disproved throughout history as well as in numerous psychological experiments involving groups of young adults, most notably the Stanford Prison Experiment.
Understanding the way the world works well also requires understanding how and why it works poorly. Critical thinking enables one to understand and explain why idealisms and agendas such as those espoused by liberals and the Demoncrap party are popular and held in high esteem by them but are so very wrong and will not, do not, and can not work in a society of modern humans.
Put simply, those who believe in that crap (communism, socialism and democracism) are not thinking critically!
The article’s author concluded we should be able to dispense with the term “critical thinking” and return to “logic.” However, like the scientific method, logic is also a subset of critical thinking. Pure logic is a framework in which to evaluate conditional expressions of that which is true and false. By “conditional” I’m referring to cause and effect, such as, “If George chopped down the cherry tree knowing that doing so was wrong, then George misbehaved. But if George chopped it down because it bore no more fruit and was using its wood for furniture, then George behaved normally.”
According to Wikipedia:
Logic is the systematic study of the forms of inference, the relations that lead to the acceptance of one proposition, the conclusion, on the basis of a set of other propositions, the premises. More broadly, logic is the analysis and appraisal of arguments. The premises may or may not support the conclusion; when they do not, the relation is characterized as a fallacy.
In order to be useful, however, logic requires a greater understanding of how and why both the world and the people in it work. What makes it and us tick. What makes us thrive. What incites us to rebellion, and what we find oppressive.
Put another way, logic is yet another tool in the box of critical thinking, but is only effective if accompanied by knowledge and understanding. Together, they lead to wisdom. Even then, however, we’re not out of the woods, as pure genius with all the knowledge, understanding, wisdom, logic, and critical thinking in the world will never in and of itself exceed its Machiavellian limits. Indeed, literally hundreds of millions of humans on Planet Earth have been murdered by other humans who were geniuses without a soul, without any sort of God-given moral compass. History is chock full of examples from Nazi Germany and Japan during World War II to Ghengis Khan, Chairman Mao, Lenin, etc.
Logic is a tool. Knowledge is a tool. Understanding is a tool. Critical thinking is a collection of a tools, including various processes designed to help people arrive at meaningful and useful conclusions.